Is your filesystem really full? Mis-balanced metadata and/or data chunks
Below, you'll see how to rebalance data blocks and metadata, and you are unlucky enough to get a filesystem full error before you balance, try running this first:
# btrfs balance start -musage=0 /path # btrfs balance start -dusage=0 /path
A null rebalance will help in some cases, if not read on.
Also, if you are really unlucky, you might get in a no more space error that requires adding a temporary block device to your filesystem to allow balance to run. See below for details.
Pre-emptively rebalancing your filesystem
In an ideal world, btrfs would do this for you, but it does not. I personally recommend you do a rebalance weekly or nightly as part of of a btrfs scrub cron job. See the btrfs-scrub script.
Is your filesystem really full? Misbalanced metadata
Unfortunately btrfs has another failure case where the metadata space can fill up. When this happens, even though you have data space left, no new files will be writeable.
In the example below, you can see Metadata DUP 9.5GB out of 10GB. Btrfs keeps 0.5GB for itself, so in the case above, metadata is full and prevents new writes.
One suggested way is to force a full rebalance, and in the example below you can see metadata goes back down to 7.39GB after it's done. Yes, there again, it would be nice if btrfs did this on its own. It will one day (some if it is now in 3.18).
Sometimes, just using -dusage=0 is enough to rebalance metadata (this is now done automatically in 3.18 and above), but if it's not enough, you'll have to increase the number.
# btrfs fi df . Data, single: total=800.42GiB, used=636.91GiB System, DUP: total=8.00MiB, used=92.00KiB System, single: total=4.00MiB, used=0.00 Metadata, DUP: total=10.00GiB, used=9.50GiB Metadata, single: total=8.00MiB, used=0.00 legolas:/mnt/btrfs_pool2# btrfs balance start -v -dusage=0 /mnt/btrfs_pool2 Dumping filters: flags 0x1, state 0x0, force is off DATA (flags 0x2): balancing, usage=0 Done, had to relocate 91 out of 823 chunks legolas:/mnt/btrfs_pool2# btrfs fi df . Data, single: total=709.01GiB, used=603.85GiB System, DUP: total=8.00MiB, used=88.00KiB System, single: total=4.00MiB, used=0.00 Metadata, DUP: total=10.00GiB, used=7.39GiB Metadata, single: total=8.00MiB, used=0.00
Are you using space_cache?
Probably you've maded a massive copy like a Tb copy with features like space_cache enabled. While space_cache is nice and accelerate things up, you'll probably need to empty this cache. It's easier than you think:
# mount -o remount,clear_cache